Schema for CpG Islands - CpG Islands (Islands < 300 Bases are Light Green)
  Database: hg38    Primary Table: cpgIslandExt    Row Count: 30,477
Format description: Describes the CpG Islands (includes observed/expected ratio)
fieldexampleSQL type info description
bin 585smallint(6) range Indexing field to speed chromosome range queries.
chrom chr1varchar(255) values Reference sequence chromosome or scaffold
chromStart 28735int(10) unsigned range Start position in chromosome
chromEnd 29737int(10) unsigned range End position in chromosome
name CpG: 111varchar(255) values CpG Island
length 1002int(10) unsigned range Island Length
cpgNum 111int(10) unsigned range Number of CpGs in island
gcNum 731int(10) unsigned range Number of C and G in island
perCpg 22.2float range Percentage of island that is CpG
perGc 73float range Percentage of island that is C or G
obsExp 0.85float range Ratio of observed(cpgNum) to expected(numC*numG/length) CpG in island

Sample Rows
585chr12873529737CpG: 111100211173122.2730.85
586chr1135124135563CpG: 304393029513.767.20.64
586chr1199251200121CpG: 10487010464323.973.90.89
587chr1368792370063CpG: 9912719977715.661.10.84
587chr1381172382185CpG: 8410138473416.672.50.64
588chr1491107491546CpG: 294392929513.267.20.62
589chr1597839598734CpG: 94895945702163.71.04
589chr1609358611269CpG: 1711911171140517.973.50.67
590chr1778604779167CpG: 605636038521.368.40.92
591chr1827036828065CpG: 111102911165721.663.81.09

Note: all start coordinates in our database are 0-based, not 1-based. See explanation here.

CpG Islands (cpgIslandExt) Track Description


CpG islands are associated with genes, particularly housekeeping genes, in vertebrates. CpG islands are typically common near transcription start sites and may be associated with promoter regions. Normally a C (cytosine) base followed immediately by a G (guanine) base (a CpG) is rare in vertebrate DNA because the Cs in such an arrangement tend to be methylated. This methylation helps distinguish the newly synthesized DNA strand from the parent strand, which aids in the final stages of DNA proofreading after duplication. However, over evolutionary time, methylated Cs tend to turn into Ts because of spontaneous deamination. The result is that CpGs are relatively rare unless there is selective pressure to keep them or a region is not methylated for some other reason, perhaps having to do with the regulation of gene expression. CpG islands are regions where CpGs are present at significantly higher levels than is typical for the genome as a whole.

The unmasked version of the track displays potential CpG islands that exist in repeat regions and would otherwise not be visible in the repeat masked version.

By default, only the masked version of the track is displayed. To view the unmasked version, change the visibility settings in the track controls at the top of this page.


CpG islands were predicted by searching the sequence one base at a time, scoring each dinucleotide (+17 for CG and -1 for others) and identifying maximally scoring segments. Each segment was then evaluated for the following criteria:

  • GC content of 50% or greater
  • length greater than 200 bp
  • ratio greater than 0.6 of observed number of CG dinucleotides to the expected number on the basis of the number of Gs and Cs in the segment

The entire genome sequence, masking areas included, was used for the construction of the track Unmasked CpG. The track CpG Islands is constructed on the sequence after all masked sequence is removed.

The CpG count is the number of CG dinucleotides in the island. The Percentage CpG is the ratio of CpG nucleotide bases (twice the CpG count) to the length. The ratio of observed to expected CpG is calculated according to the formula (cited in Gardiner-Garden et al. (1987)):

    Obs/Exp CpG = Number of CpG * N / (Number of C * Number of G)
where N = length of sequence.


This track was generated using a modification of a program developed by G. Miklem and L. Hillier (unpublished).


Gardiner-Garden M, Frommer M. CpG islands in vertebrate genomes. J Mol Biol. 1987 Jul 20;196(2):261-82. PMID: 3656447